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   2016| May-August  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 21, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Silver amalgam: A clinician's perspective
Treville Pereira
May-August 2016, 4(2):25-30
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.181000  
Caries persists throughout the world, and patients have multiple restorations that are likely to need replacement throughout the remainder of their lives. The selection of the best restorative material that can be used in the oral cavity is a challenging job for both the dentist and the manufacturer. While material properties and clinical performance are critically important, local economies, health care systems, will be important determinants of whether and where new materials can be easily adopted. Challenges exist not only in specifying how the material should be manipulated and perform clinically but also in understanding and incorporating implications of the skill of the operator placing the restoration. Many restorative materials currently exist like amalgam, composites, glass ionomers, and resin ionomers. It is important that the dentist must make the selection of the material with great care because, in future years, those restorations needing replacement will result in the loss of increasing amounts of tooth structure. Amalgam has a lot of disadvantages such as lack of adhesion, toxicity, poor esthetics, and marginal leakage; however, the advantages score better over other materials.
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LETTER TO EDITOR
Stabilizing the resin dentin bond
Naveen Manuja
May-August 2016, 4(2):69-69
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.180996  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of caries-protective effect of three recent dentin bonding agents on demineralization of root surface: An in vitro study
Abdul Aziz, Hena Rahman, Ramesh Chandra, Kapil Loomba, Shailja Singh
May-August 2016, 4(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.180999  
Objective: To evaluate the caries-protective effect of three recent dentin bonding agents (DBAs) on demineralization of root surface in vitro. Materials and Methods: The root surface of 70 freshly extracted caries-free human teeth was thoroughly cleaned and polished, thereby removing the cementum. The root surfaces were coated with acid-resistant nail polish and 2 mm × 3 mm rectangular window was prepared on the buccal surface. The samples were then divided randomly into three experimental groups; Group 1 (Xeno-V), Group 2 (Tetric N Bond), and Group 3 (Gluma Self-etch) which were further divided into two Subgroups (A and B) with 10 samples each in which second layer of adhesive was cured without air thinning and with air thinning respectively. Subsequently, all specimens were demineralized for 6 days with acidified gel (hydroxyethylcellulose, pH 4.8, 37°C). Each tooth samples were sliced in plano parallel section (80 ± 20 μm) by safe sided diamond disc and examined for caries-like lesions (demineralized area) under a polarized microscope. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t- and Tukey honestly significant difference tests. Results: All control group specimen exhibited lesions with a mean depth of 86.15 μm. In Group 1–3, the lesion depth was reduced significantly, Subgroup A results were better than B. Conclusion: Demineralization on root surface can be impeded by DBA tested. Gluma Self-etch showed maximum caries-protective effect.
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Smear layer removal and ultramorphological changes of root canal dentin induced by erbium, chromium: Yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser
Dunia Alhadi, Natheer H Al-Rawi, Farah M Jaber, Manaf Agah, Musab H Saeed
May-August 2016, 4(2):48-52
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.180998  
Aim: Using SEM & EDX analysis to evaluate: 1. The ability of Er;Cr;YSSG laser irradiation to the remove of smear layer from the root canal walls compared to the conventional EDTA/NaOCl irrigation technique 2. The effect of Er;Cr;YSSG laser irradiation on ultra morphologic characteristics and on the inorganic contents of root canal dentine. Materials and Methods: 18 single rooted freshly extracted human premolars) were chemomechanically prepared using protaper rotary nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments (Dentsply maillefer) up to size 40/60 (F4) between each instruments 2 ml of 2.5% NaOcl were used. Samples were divided into two groups (n=8): Group A: 5 ml of 17% EDTA for 1 minute. Group B: Irradiation with Er;Cr;YSSG laser. Two teeth were used as a positive control (presence of smear layer). Teeth sections were evaluated by using the SEM and the EDX analysis. Results: It has been found that more than 70% of the examined samples in EDTA group showed significant removal of the smear layer in coronal, middle and apical third of the examined teeth. In Er;Cr;YSGG group, the coronal portion showed complete removal of the smear layer but with destruction of the inner wall of the dentin. In apical portion more than 87.5% of the samples showed the persistence of the smear layer in that region after laser treatment. When evaluating the degree of erosion, the highest degree was noted in the samples treated with Er,Cr;YSGG. Laser irradiation has less effect on the mineral contents of the root canal walls. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that the use of Er;Cr;YSGG laser irradiation alone is significantly less effective in removing the apical third smear layer than the golden standard irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA.
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Adhesion to pulp chamber dentin: Effect of different endodontic irrigants
Rajni Nagpal, Payal Singh, Shipra Singh, Naveen Manuja, Rahul Gupta, Pallavi Sharma
May-August 2016, 4(2):53-58
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.180994  
Aim: To evaluate the effect of different endodontic irrigation regimens on the sealing ability of resin composite restorations placed within the pulp chamber using contemporary simplified adhesives. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human molars were divided into six groups. After de-roofing the pulp chamber and extirpating the pulp, pulp chambers were bonded with either G-Bond after irrigation with saline (Group 1); ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group 2), and NaOCl + QMix (Group 3) or bonded with OptiBond adhesive after irrigation with saline (Group 4), EDTA and NaOCl (Group 5), and NaOCl + QMix (Group 6). All the samples were restored with composite. Ten samples per group were assessed for dye penetration. Fifteen samples were assessed under scanning electron microscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Both EDTA + NaOCl or NaOCl + QMix pretreatment of pulp chamber dentin significantly reduced microleakage scores in adhesive OptiBond, but did not affect the microleakage of G-Bond. Conclusions: EDTA + NaOCl or NaOCl + QMix irrigation of the pulp chamber was not deleterious to the bonding of any of the adhesives tested.
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Effect of blood contamination on the push-out bond strength of two endodontic biomaterials
Alireza Adl, Fereshte Sobhnamayan, Nooshin Sadatshojaee, Niloofar Azadeh
May-August 2016, 4(2):59-63
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.180997  
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of blood contamination on the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty dentin slices from single-rooted human teeth were sectioned and instrumented to achieve a diameter of 1.3 mm. The specimens were allocated into eight groups based on the materials used, the presence or absence of blood contamination, and the time. MTA and CEM were mixed and introduced into the lumens of dentin slices in groups 1–4 and 5–8, respectively. In blood-contaminated groups (1, 3, 5, and 7), the specimens were in direct contact with blood. The push-out test was performed in groups 1, 2, 5, and 6 after 3 days and in othergroups after 21 days. For the evaluation of failure modes, the samples were examined under a light microscope at × 40 magnifications. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The bond strength of MTA was higher than that of CEM, regardless of contamination and time (P < 0.05). For both materials, regardless of contamination, there was an increase in the bond strength from days 3to 21 (P < 0.05). Regardless of materials and time, blood contamination had no significant effect on the bond strength of materials (P > 0.05). Inspection of the samples revealed that the bond failure was predominantly of the mixed type in all groups. Conclusion: Blood contamination had no adverse effect on the bond strengths of both MTA and CEM; resistance of MTA to displacement was greater than that of CEM cement. However, the elapsed time, from 3 to 21 days, resulted in an increase in bond strength of both materials.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The effect of orthodontic tooth movement on endodontically treated teeth
Hakan Aydin, Kursat Er
May-August 2016, 4(2):31-41
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.181001  
There is often the need of moving teeth, which was endodontically treated or teeth still in endodontic treatment. Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth was approached with suspicion for many years, and clinicians abstain from applying orthodontic movement to teeth. This movement inevitably causes biological reactions in periodontal ligament and pulp. Application of a severe orthodontic force for a long time can cause irreversible pulpitis and necrosis in pulp by increasing pulp inflammation process. Use of moderate and intermittent forces enables sufficient tooth movement, limits the damage in the pulp, and allows the damaged pulp healing. Microscopic root resorption occurs in all teeth during orthodontic treatment, which is clinically insignificant and cannot be determined radiographically. The aim of this review is to determine issues to be considered for endodontic terms before orthodontic treatment, the alterations which may be occurred in the pulp, hard tissues, and periapical region of the teeth during and after treatment and how these changes affect the results of treatment.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION
A comparative study on the effect of Massularia acuminata and mouthwash against isolates from the oral cavity
Emudainohwo Joseph Oghenebrorie Tedwins, Owhe-Ureghe Ubreye Benjamin, Ewharieme Daniel Ayobola, Moke Emuesiri Goodies, Erhirhie Earnest Oghenesuvwe
May-August 2016, 4(2):64-68
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.180995  
Aim: This research determines the antimicrobial activity of 'PakoIjebu' chewing stick (Massularia acuminata) and some common mouthwashes (Hexedene®, Brett®, and Listerine®) against some isolates of the oral cavity.Settings and Design: The samples were obtained by the use of sterile swab stick to isolate the microorganisms (Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus species, Klebsiella species, Neissera sicca, Micrococcus species, Muccor, Aspergillus flavus and Giosporium) from the oral cavity of healthy undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria using standard microbiological techniques. The sensitivity test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined.Results: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Massularia acuminata had an MIC of 25 mg/mL which was similar to those of commercially available mouth wash analyzed in the study. The ethanol extract of Massularia acuminata was bactericidal against Lactobacilus species, Streptococcus oralis and Neissera sicca at a concentration of 50 mg/mL which suggests that the extract is more effective compared to the tested mouth wash. Among the mouth wash, only Listerine was bactericidal against Neissera sicca at an MBC of 50 mg/mL. Conclusion: This study confirmed the age long belief that those who use Massularia acuminate regularly for their oral care has a low rate of oral infections; therefore, extract of Massularia acuminata could be incorporated into tooth paste or used as mouth wash for periodontal infections.
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