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   2016| January-April  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 9, 2016

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Proanthocyanidin: A natural dentin biomodifier in adhesive dentistry
Rajni Nagpal, Payal Singh, Shipra Singh, Shashi Prabha Tyagi
January-April 2016, 4(1):1-6
Proanthocyanidin (PA), a plant flavonoid, has recently been used in adhesive and restorative dentistry as a natural collagen cross-linking agent. As the long-term stability of the resin-bonded dentin is still questionable due to hydrolysis of collagen by collagenolytic enzymes, the use of collagen cross-linking agents has been proposed to enhance mechanical properties of dentin matrix and reduce biodegradation rates of collagen. Therefore, this paper discusses the chemistry and properties of PA, its role in stabilizing the bonded interface and enhancing the clinical longevity of adhesive restorations, and also considers various factors related to its incorporation in the bonding protocol.
  4 5,013 994
Management of a mandibular first molar with three separate root canals in the distal root
Kesavan Mohan, Sarra Abdulhamid Abdalla Ben Hmida, Saaid Ayesh Alshehadat, Mohamad Syahrizal Halim, Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed
January-April 2016, 4(1):22-24
Adequate knowledge on the root canal morphology is essential for successful root canal treatment. Mandibular molar teeth show considerable variations in their external and internal radicular morphology that require special attention from dental practitioners to provide the best clinical outcomes for the patients. The occurrence of three separate root canals in the distal root of a mandibular molar is uncommon. This article aims to present the endodontic management of a mandibular first molar that has five separate root canals (two root canals in the mesial roots and three root canals in the distal roots).
  - 4,407 357
Orthodontic bonding to high-copper amalgam with different adhesive cements
Mustafa Ülker, Siddik Malkoç, Hayriye Esra Ülker, Muhammet Yalçin, Meral Malkoç
January-April 2016, 4(1):7-10
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of metal brackets bonded by four different adhesive cements to high-copper amalgam surfaces. Materials and Methods: A commonly used dental amalgam (nongamma 2, lathe-cut, high-copper alloy) (Cavex Avalloy, Cavex) was triturated according to the manufacturers' directions, and then condensed into a cylindrical (diameter: 8 mm, depth: 2 mm) undercut cavity prepared in auto polymerized acrylic resin. Exposed surfaces of 100 specimens were polished with 400, 600, 800, and 1200 grit paper and cleaned for 10 min under running tap water, air-dried, sandblasted for 3 s with 50-micron aluminum oxide abrasive, and coated with alloy primer (Alloy PrimerTM, Kuraray). Lower incisors metal brackets were bonded to prepared surfaces with an orthodontic composite Transbond XT (3M) (control) and four adhesive cements: C and B Metabond (Parkell), Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray), Resinomer (Bisco), and Bis Cem (Bisco). After 24 h, all samples were tested for shear bond strength with the universal test machine. The data were calculated as MPa and statistically analyzed. Results: Statistically bond strengths of Panavia F 2.0 and C and B Metabond were higher than the bond strengths of Bis Cem and Resinomer (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the bond strength of control group (Transbond XT) and the other adhesive cements tested (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Bonding the brackets to sand blasted and alloy primer coated amalgam surfaces can be achieved by traditional orthodontic composites (Transbond XT). Panavia F 2.0 and C and B Metabond adhesive cements may improve bonding to high-copper amalgam.
  - 1,205 124
Effects of hydrogen peroxide-based mouthwashes on color changes of stained direct composite resins
Muhammet Karadas, Murat Alkurt, Zeynep Yesil Duymus
January-April 2016, 4(1):11-16
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three mouthwashes on color changes of three composite resins stained with tea. Materials and Methods: Fifty specimens were prepared for each of the three composite resins [Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (CME), Filtek Z250 (Z25), and Charisma (CH)], and the specimens were then stained in a tea solution. Each composite group was randomly divided into five subgroups (n = 10) according to the product applied: Distilled water (DW) (negative control); Crest 3D White mouthwash (CR); Listerine whitening mouthwash (LS); Scope White SC mouthwash (SC), and Opalescence PF gel (OP) (10% carbamide peroxide, positive control). The color of the specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer at baseline, after staining, and on the 7th, 28 th , and 56 th days of the treatment period. The color differences (ΔE) were analyzed with a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Results: Compared with the clinically acceptable threshold unit, the level of staining on all the composite resins was considerably high (ΔE > 3.3). The composite resin, mouthwash, immersion time, and their interaction had a significant effect on the color change procedure (P < 0.05), but the immersion time × mouthwash × composite did not. Conclusion: The discoloration of the specimens after immersion in the mouthwashes decreased significantly over time. Only the staining of the CME specimens treated with CR, LS, and OP decreased to a clinically acceptable level at the end-treatment period.
  - 3,051 515
A SEM evaluation of smear layer removal using two rotary instrument systems with EDTA and vinegar as a root canal irrigant
Udayakumar Palaniswamy, Mamta Kaushik, Lakkam Ram Surender, Neha Prashar, Shikha Arya, Srikanth Pasari
January-April 2016, 4(1):17-21
Introduction: As the smear layer (SL) produced during instrumentation adheres to the dentinal surface and prevents penetration of irrigants and medicaments, it should be removed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and white vinegar (5% pure acetic acid) to remove debris and SL produced during root canal preparation with two nickel-titanium (NiTi) file systems, Hyflex (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA). Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted human, single-rooted teeth were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and were randomly divided into four groups of five samples each. In each group, 0.5 mL of 5% NaOCl was used as the first irrigant, which was followed by either 17% EDTA or vinegar. Two groups were prepared with Hyflex rotary files and the other two with ProTaper files. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was done to evaluate the SL, and the collected data were submitted for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed based on Student's t-test with P value >0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the types of instruments used (Hyflex files and ProTaper files), and 17% EDTA solution and vinegar (5% acetic acid). Conclusion: Vinegar can be relied on as an endodontic irrigant for SL removal was comparable to 17% EDTA. In addition, both types of NiTi instrument produced similar dentin surface in terms of SL when used along with EDTA and vinegar.
  - 2,415 361