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   2015| September-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 30, 2015

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A brief review of the methods used to determine the curvature of root canals
Pooja Balani, Fayez Niazi, Haroon Rashid
September-December 2015, 3(3):57-63
Successful endodontic therapy is largely dependent on a triad of access cavity, canal preparation, and three-dimensional hermetically sealed obturation of the canals. Canal preparation is the most vital part of the triad that can be very challenging due to the complex morphology of the root canal system. Clinicians quite frequently encounter severe canal curvatures of different degrees within the roots that lead to a variety of problems including ledge formation, separation of instruments, canal blockage, and tear-drop transportation at the apex or perforation. Anatomical variations within the complex root canal morphology are the commonest cause of endodontic treatment failure. It is, therefore, essential to have a thorough knowledge about the internal and external morphologies of teeth. The aim of the current paper is to review the methods used to determine the root canal curvature and its management.
  20,092 7,312 2
A case report on fluorosed teeth whitening without microabrasion - Is it possible?
R Banu Ermis, Muhittin Ugurlu
September-December 2015, 3(3):83-87
Whitening of fluorosis stains ranging from yellow to dark brown presents a great challenge to the dentists. The aim of this study was to report the clinical case of a 32-year-old female patient with moderate fluorosis, who was treated using the combination of light-assisted in-office and at-home whitening system. The in-office whitening was performed using 25% hydrogen peroxide (Zoom DayWhite, Discus Dental, Stamford, USA) for four 15-min sessions with supplemental light (Philips Zoom, Stamford, USA) immediately followed by home whitening with a take-home custom tray using 22% carbamide peroxide (Zoom NiteWhite, Discus Dental, Stamford, USA) worn for 6 h a day for 1 week. Color measurements using a dental spectrophotometer (Spectroshade, MHT Optic Research AG, Niederhasli, Switzerland) after the first week showed that the suggested combination technique provided a fast whitening result with a high degree of patient satisfaction. The in-office whitening with light exhibited to be an efficient method for removing yellow and brown fluorosis stains, while the at-home whitening was useful for obtaining a uniform tooth shade. At the 6-month and 1-year recall, the teeth shade and appearance were evaluated. The results of this case report clearly show an effective esthetic result in the long term; however, the question of whether appropriate color stability would be provided by the technique still remains to be answered.
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Comparative evaluation of working length determination by using conventional radiography, digital radiography and electronic apex locator
Rakesh Mittal, Meenu Garg Singla, Ashima Sood, Anchal Singla
September-December 2015, 3(3):70-75
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of an electronic apex locator (EAL), conventional radiography, and digital radiography in working length (WL) determination. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 25 vital premolar teeth, scheduled for extraction in orthodontic patients. After administration of local anesthesia, the teeth were isolated and the pulp cavities were accessed. The WL for each tooth was measured by an EAL (Justy II; Yoshida Dentcraft, Tokyo, Japan), conventional and digital radiographies. Immediately after WL determination, the teeth were extracted and actual WL was measured with a file under magnifying loupes (X3). Ability to measure WL was detected precisely and in acceptable range that is ± 0.5 mm of actual WL. Results: The mean value of differences between three experimental methods length and the actual WL were statistically significant (P < 0.05). EAL gave the most accurate readings out of all the experimental groups, with 100% accuracy within the acceptable range where as digital radiography gave the least accurate reading. Conclusion: The electronic method (Justy II apex locator) demonstrated significant accuracy in determining the working length.
  3,683 853 1
Synergic antibacterial effect between Maillard reactive product (MRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on Streptococcus mutans
Morimichi Mizuno, Ki-ichiro Inoue
September-December 2015, 3(3):64-69
Objectives: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of resin composite containing Maillard reactive product (MRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), and to investigate the antibacterial mechanism involved. Methods: The growth of S. mutans was investigated after dental resin containing H2O2in the presence and absence of MRP, was immersed into bacterial solution. The effect of MRP on H2O2degradation was examined by the measurement of H2O2content. Results: The resin composite containing MRP and H2O2showed stable antibacterial activity compared with resin containing H2O2only, and the effect of MRP was speculated to be the suppression of H2O2degradation, and the presence of H2O2correlated with the antibacterial activity of resin composite. These results indicated that the antibacterial activity of resin composite containing MRP and H2O2on S. mutans was dependent on the presence of H2O2, and MRP suppressed the degradation of H2O2after combination with H2O2. EDTA also suppressed the degradation of H2O2. Conclusions: An antibacterial effect of resin composite containing MRP and H2O2on S. mutans was observed. The effect of MRP on H2O2might be a metal chelating action. Application of resin composite containing MRP and H2O2to a caries dentine could be an alternative therapy to or serve as an additional minimally invasive antibacterial treatment.
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Spectrophotometric analysis of Icon® treatment outcome in two celiac siblings with developmental defects of enamel, a case report
Fabrizio Guerra, Marta Mazur, Francesca Rinaldo, Livia Ottolenghi
September-December 2015, 3(3):88-91
Developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are common oral manifestation of celiac disease whose onset can overlap to teeth calcification in permanent dentition. The defects of the enamel symmetrically and chronologically occur in all the four quadrants, particularly in maxillary and mandibular incisors and molars. Icon® infiltration technique is a minimally invasive procedure for DDE treatment. This paper reports two cases of treatment of celiac siblings with aesthetic purpose. The aesthetic evaluation was made by means of spectrophotometry as a standardized method. International Commision on Illumination (CIE) L*a*b*, ΔE variations, contrast ratio (CR), and opalescence, measured against black and white backgrounds before and after the treatment, provide all the quantitative information about the outcome of the Icon® infiltration technique. Icon® infiltration technique has been showed to be an effective procedure for DDE treatment.
  2,999 214 -
Correlation of fracture resistance of molar teeth with weight
Bilal Yasa, Huseyin Ertas, Hakan Arslan, Tuba Gok, Ismail Davut Capar
September-December 2015, 3(3):76-79
Background: The aim of this study was to determine a standardizing model for fracture resistance test methods in which molar teeth are used. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular molar teeth were selected. Each tooth was numbered and data were obtained by measuring the mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions, length, and weight. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine, and for each sample, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newton. The correlations of the MD and BL dimensions, lengths, and weights of the teeth to the fracture strength values were evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Significant correlations were not observed between the fracture strength values and MD dimensions (r = 0.055, P > 0.05), BL dimensions (r = 0.074, P > 0.05), and lengths of the teeth (r = 0.017, P > 0.05); however, they were observed with the weights of the teeth (r = 0.312, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The fracture resistance of molar teeth increases as their weights increases. These weights should be standardized during fracture resistance studies when distributing sample molar teeth into the study groups.
  1,979 304 1
Influence of abutment-configuration on fracture strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns
Michael Weyhrauch, Stefan Wentaschack, Christopher Igiel, Herbert Scheller, Karl Martin Lehmann
September-December 2015, 3(3):80-82
Aims: This in vitro study assessed the fracture strength of computer-aided designing (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-fabricated crowns on implant-abutments with different configurations. Subjects and Methods: Out of 30, 15 implant-abutments were shortened to 2 mm and a ball-headin metal-alloy was fixed on each abutment. Single crowns (Vita Mark II, Empress CAD, e. max CAD, Lava Ultimate, artBloc Temp Merz Dental, Telio CAD, and Vita CAD Temp) were designed. After cementation of the crowns using RelyX Unicem, a Zwick universal testing machine was used to aplicate occlusal force until the ceramic material was destroyed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis were performed using analysis of variance (α =0.05) and Bonferroni correction. Results: This study has confirmed significant increases in fracture strength of crowns made of ceramic materials using the ball-head abutmentc on figuration. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The fracture strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated all-ceramic crowns could be increased using a rounded abutment up to 1.6 times. (2) The fracture strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated polymers could not be enhanced using a ball-head abutment. The increase of the fracture strength of all-ceramic crowns using the rounded abutment, could give reasons for the producers of implant abutments to improve their abutment design.
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Nonsurgical retreatment and reinforcement of an immature permanent tooth with periapical lesion of endodontic origin
Amit Malhotra, Jyoti Ahlawat, Chirag Bansal, H Murali Rao
September-December 2015, 3(3):92-95
Endodontic management of immature traumatized teeth usually involves carrying out conventional (apexogenesis and apexification) or regenerative endodontic treatment. While continued development of the radicular tooth structure should be the desired outcome of treating teeth with open apex, in cases of necrotic teeth or retreatment procedures, the formation of apical barrier via apexification is a more feasible approach. A 21-year-old boy reported with a traumatized maxillary central incisor with incomplete root development, previously treated 13 years ago; it was decided to retreat the tooth endodontically and carry out rehabilitation via reinforcement of the root using fiber post. The post was customized by relining it with direct, visible-light-cured composite resin and final cementation was carried out using dual cure composite resin. This paper aims to present and discuss different treatment modalities possible in a young traumatized tooth.
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How does fixed prosthodontics interface with periodontology?
Haroon Rashid
September-December 2015, 3(3):96-96
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