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   2013| January-April  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 29, 2013

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Using resin infiltration to treat developmental defects of enamel: Three case reports
Samah I Omar
January-April 2013, 1(1):31-35
White spots or patches on permanent incisors are common among young adolescents; this may cause aesthetic concerns for both the patient and the parents equally. Management of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) is challenging and highly dependent on the type, severity, and appearance of the defect. Resin infiltration procedure is simple and conservative, and the procedure is generally well tolerated by patients. The material was introduced in the market to treat initial interproximal carious lesions and for post-orthodontic decalcifications. It was noticed that enamel lesions treated with resin infiltration would lose their whitish appearance as the microporosities are filled with the resin. In this case report, we have demonstrated the successful use of resin infiltration (ICON® ) for masking the white color resulting from mild DDE. The pleasing aesthetic results and the conservative nature of this approach make it a good alternative to microabrasion and conventional resin restorations.
  15,507 1,311 1
The root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular premolars: A literature review
Padmanabh Jha, Vineeta Nikhil, Vipin Arora, Mesha Jha
January-April 2013, 1(1):3-10
The objective was to review thoroughly the literature of the root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular premolars. Published studies were divided into anatomic studies reporting the number of roots, number of canals, and apical anatomy. Differences caused by gender and ethnicity have also been reported. Individual case reports of anomalies were included to demonstrate the extreme range of variation. Almost all of the teeth in the anatomic studies were single rooted (99.6%). The incidence of two roots (0.3%) and three roots (0.1%) was extremely rare. Anatomic studies of the internal canal morphology found that a single canal was present in 91.0% of the teeth. A single apical foramen was found in 91.8% of the teeth. However, the root and root canal morphology of the mandibular premolars can be extremely complex and requires careful assessment.
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Enamel microabrasion associated with dental bleaching to treat sequelae of amelogenesis imperfect
Josué Martos, Daiani W. W. da Silveira, Luiz F. M. Silveira, Oscar L. V. Ramos
January-April 2013, 1(1):36-39
The aim of this paper is to describe the treatment of a patient with amelogenesis imperfect in the maxillary teeth, employing the enamel microabrasion associated with tooth bleaching. It was used a microabrasive agent consisting of 6% hydrochloric acid and silicon carbide (Whiteness RM) and later, a hydrogen peroxide 35% bleaching product with the use of Twist pen system (Mix One Supreme). It can be concluded that, since being taken clinical care and also in diagnosis/planning, the association of microabrasion and bleaching techniques is an excellent option for esthetic and conservative treatment of teeth chromatically altered by enamel defects and its sequels.
  6,299 573 -
Reliability of electronically detection of fissure caries (by using a prototype device): An alternative diagnostic electronic caries monitor device
Abdulkadir Sengun, Yüksel Özbay, Bayram Akdemir, Bora Öztürk, Füsun Özer, Serdar Baglar
January-April 2013, 1(1):26-30
Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the reliability of a prototype electronic caries monitor (ECM) for diagnosis of the dental caries on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and to compare using histological examination as gold standard. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 93 occlusal sites of 33 extracted human molars. Electrical resistance to alternative currency of 21 Hz and 24 Vpp of the teeth was measured with the ECM, which produced in Selcuk University. After obtaining electrical conductance values, each tooth was then sectioned into two pieces mesiodistally and examined histologically for occlusal caries under the stereomicroscope. Statistical evaluations were made using Pearson correlation test. Results: A statistically significant negative correlation was found between electrical resistance of the teeth and occlusal caries presence ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: As a result, it is suggested that ECM is a nondestructive and suitable method at detection of occlusal caries.
  6,182 624 1
Correlation between dental caries and salivary immunoglobulin in adult Indian population: An in vivo study
Mithra Hegde, Darshana Devadiga, Chitharanjan Shetty, Aditya Shetty
January-April 2013, 1(1):22-25
Aim: To evaluate the relationship between dental caries and salivary immunoglobulins (S-Igs) in unstimulated saliva of young adults between the age group of 20 and 30 years from South Canara district, Karnataka with varying caries experience as determined by their Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) scores. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 80 healthy adult subjects with age group between 20 and 30 years. The healthy subjects without any chronic diseases were selected. The patients were divided into four groups according to DMFT status (WHO, 1997) as G-I, DMFT 0; G-II, DMFT 1-5; G-III, DMFT 6-10; and G-IV, as DMFT above 10. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from each subjects and checked for S-IgA and IgG. The obtained data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey`s Honestly Significant Difference test. Results: Correlation of DMFT with S-IgA showed that as the S-IgA levels decreased in the saliva, there was increase in the DMFT levels. With intergroup comparison of S-IgA, there is no significant difference between group I and group II. There was no significant correlation seen between the S-IgG G levels and dental caries experience. Conclusion: The S-IgA increases with decrease in caries activity and S-IgG does not show any correlation with dental caries.
  5,232 699 5
Effectiveness of calcium hydroxide plus points and chlorhexidine activ points against Enterococcus faecalis by agar diffusion test: An in-vitro study
Venkatesh Alagarsamy, AV Rajesh Ebenezar, MR Srinivasan, Ajit George Mohan, Senthil Kumar
January-April 2013, 1(1):18-21
Aims/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of two intracanal medicaments and their combination against Enterococcus faecalis, which are commonly found in root canals. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine activ points, calcium hydroxide plus points and combination of both points after 1 st day, 2 nd day, 3 rd day, 7 th day, and 14 th day were evaluated using agar diffusion test. Anti-bacterial activity as evidenced by inhibitory zones of clearance around the medicament was observed and diameters (in mm) measured. Results: Chlorhexidine activ points show the maximum inhibition against E. faecalis calcium hydroxide points alone and when combined with chlorhexidine shows the minimal antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine activ points obtained the highest antimicrobial activity compared with other medicament and can be the medicament of choice.
  5,148 436 1
Effect of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages on the wear and fracture toughness of teeth and resin composite materials: In vitro study
Fatema Yusuf, A Srirekha, Jayshree Hegde, Rupali Karale, Kusum Bashetty, Savitha Adiga
January-April 2013, 1(1):11-17
Background: Tooth wear is becoming more apparent in the early stages of life. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages have highest buffering capacity and low pH values show pronounced erosive effect on enamel and degradation rate of composite materials. Hence the purpose of this study is to compare wear and degradation of two resin composite materials and teeth in presence of different alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Materials and Methods: Total 75 specimens comprising of composite blocks (Z350 and P90) and mandibular molars were divided into experimental groups (A, B, and C) ( n = 25). The experimental liquids were water, Sprite® , Coke® , Kingfisher® Beer, and Golconda® Wine ( n = 5). The specimens were weighed using a digital weighing balance. Wear was carried in Wet Abrasive Wear Tester. SEM evaluation was done. Fracture toughness performed with universal testing machine. Results: In Groups A and B significant weight loss in all experimental beverages, maximum in alcoholic beverages ( P < 0.05). SEM showed surface irregularities, filler/matrix interfacial failure, and significant decrease in fracture toughness in Groups A and B. In Group C significant weight loss and decrease in fracture toughness maximum in non-alcoholic beverages ( P < 0.05). SEM showed significant wear and surface irregularities. Conclusions: It was concluded that significant amount of wear of dental composite materials and teeth seen in presence of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. All the experimental groups displayed statistical significant decrease in fracture toughness in presence of all beverages.
  4,832 624 2
Restorative dentistry
Fatma Koray
January-April 2013, 1(1):1-2
  2,031 288 -
Randomized controlled trials: The apple of researchers' eyes in oral health
Rafael Sarkis-Onofre, Jovito Adiel Skupien, Tatiana Pereira-Cenci
January-April 2013, 1(1):40-41
  1,549 198 -