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REVIEW ARTICLES
Formocresol, still a controversial material for pulpotomy: A critical literature review
Shashidhar Chandrashekhar, Jyothi Shashidhar
September-December 2014, 2(3):114-124
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.143594  
This paper reviews the history, clinical success and concerns regarding the safety of formocresol as a primary molar pulpotomy medicament. The alternatives to formocresol are discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.
  48,498 3,763 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Tooth surface loss revisited: Classification, etiology, and management
Ayesha Hanif, Haroon Rashid, Mustafa Nasim
May-August 2015, 3(2):37-43
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.156643  
Tooth wear is a general term describing the loss of dental hard tissues from the surfaces of the teeth. As the lifespan of individuals increase and the teeth are increasingly retained for life the incidence of non-carious tooth surface loss has also shown a rise. Little is understood about the aetiology and management of these lesions and there are several occasions where the condition is often neglected. The prevalence of tooth surface loss is difficult to establish and the reported clinical and epidemiological data are difficult to compare, due to differences in terminologies and many indices involved. The purpose of current review is to focus on the classification, aetiology and management of common non-carious conditions causing tooth surface loss.
  17,789 2,139 2
A brief review of the methods used to determine the curvature of root canals
Pooja Balani, Fayez Niazi, Haroon Rashid
September-December 2015, 3(3):57-63
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.168733  
Successful endodontic therapy is largely dependent on a triad of access cavity, canal preparation, and three-dimensional hermetically sealed obturation of the canals. Canal preparation is the most vital part of the triad that can be very challenging due to the complex morphology of the root canal system. Clinicians quite frequently encounter severe canal curvatures of different degrees within the roots that lead to a variety of problems including ledge formation, separation of instruments, canal blockage, and tear-drop transportation at the apex or perforation. Anatomical variations within the complex root canal morphology are the commonest cause of endodontic treatment failure. It is, therefore, essential to have a thorough knowledge about the internal and external morphologies of teeth. The aim of the current paper is to review the methods used to determine the root canal curvature and its management.
  13,986 5,582 1
Importance of coronal seal: Preventing coronal leakage in endodontics
Lalitagauri Mandke
September-December 2016, 4(3):71-75
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.188224  
The primary goal of endodontic treatment is to keep the pulpal space free of microorganisms and to prevent recurrent infection. Oral bacteria and their by-products can penetrate this space if there is inadequate coronal or apical seal. Apical leakage leading to reinfection of an obturated canal has been the major cause of failed endodontic treatment. However, recently, attention has been drawn to the significance of coronal seal in endodontic success. Microbial contamination through the occlusal surface, leading to coronal leakage constitutes a large percentage of failed root canal treatments. This paper highlights the clinical and biological implications of coronal leakage and the means to prevent the same.
  12,570 4,631 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Vertical root fractures: An update review
Anu Dhawan, Sumit Gupta, Rakesh Mittal
September-December 2014, 2(3):107-113
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.143457  
Vertical root fractures are the most common cause of tooth loss. These fractures have a multifactorial etiology. They lead to advanced periodontal breakdown with deep periodontal pockets and vertical bone defects. Clinical signs and symptoms are often elusive in nature and may be difficult to detect. In this review, the etiology, diagnosis, prevention and management of vertical root fractures is discussed.
  12,988 2,369 2
CASE REPORTS
A case report of accidental extrusion of sodium hypochlorite into the maxillary sinus during endodontic retreatment and review of current prevention and management
Dominic Peter Laverty
May-August 2014, 2(2):96-100
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.136648  
A case is presented of a patient attending with a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) accident of the left maxillary sinus during endodontic retreatment of a maxillary molar tooth. Sodium hypochlorite accidents are relatively uncommon but when they occur there is potential for severe complications. A literature review has been carried out reviewing current recommendations to reduce the likelihood of a sodium hypochlorite accident and the management of a sodium hypochlorite accident if occurs.
  13,151 962 2
Using resin infiltration to treat developmental defects of enamel: Three case reports
Samah I Omar
January-April 2013, 1(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.111231  
White spots or patches on permanent incisors are common among young adolescents; this may cause aesthetic concerns for both the patient and the parents equally. Management of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) is challenging and highly dependent on the type, severity, and appearance of the defect. Resin infiltration procedure is simple and conservative, and the procedure is generally well tolerated by patients. The material was introduced in the market to treat initial interproximal carious lesions and for post-orthodontic decalcifications. It was noticed that enamel lesions treated with resin infiltration would lose their whitish appearance as the microporosities are filled with the resin. In this case report, we have demonstrated the successful use of resin infiltration (ICON® ) for masking the white color resulting from mild DDE. The pleasing aesthetic results and the conservative nature of this approach make it a good alternative to microabrasion and conventional resin restorations.
  10,790 976 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The effect of orthodontic tooth movement on endodontically treated teeth
Hakan Aydin, Kursat Er
May-August 2016, 4(2):31-41
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.181001  
There is often the need of moving teeth, which was endodontically treated or teeth still in endodontic treatment. Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth was approached with suspicion for many years, and clinicians abstain from applying orthodontic movement to teeth. This movement inevitably causes biological reactions in periodontal ligament and pulp. Application of a severe orthodontic force for a long time can cause irreversible pulpitis and necrosis in pulp by increasing pulp inflammation process. Use of moderate and intermittent forces enables sufficient tooth movement, limits the damage in the pulp, and allows the damaged pulp healing. Microscopic root resorption occurs in all teeth during orthodontic treatment, which is clinically insignificant and cannot be determined radiographically. The aim of this review is to determine issues to be considered for endodontic terms before orthodontic treatment, the alterations which may be occurred in the pulp, hard tissues, and periapical region of the teeth during and after treatment and how these changes affect the results of treatment.
  8,753 1,434 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Caries detector dyes: Do they stain only the caries?
Osman Tolga Harorli, Çagatay Barutcigil, Nilgün Akgül, Yusuf Ziya Bayindir
January-April 2014, 2(1):20-26
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.129012  
Objective: Caries detector (CD) dyes aid in caries diagnosis by staining the organic matrix of less mineralized infected dentine. However, detector dyes are not specific to bacteria and can discolor surrounding healthy tissues as dentino-enamel junction or the circumpulpal dentine. Possible discoloring effect of CD dye over restorative materials have not been evaluated until date. The aim of this study was to investigate the staining effects of four commercial CD dyes Caries Detector (CAD), Caries Marker (CAM),SEEK (SEE), Sable Seek (SES) on a variety of tooth colored restorative materials; Filtek Valux Plus (VLX), Filtek Z250 (Z25), Filtek Silorane (SIL) Fuji IX (FUJ). Materials and Methods: A total of 40 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each restorative material. After 24 h distilled water storage, baseline color was measured according to the Commission International de l'Eclairage L* a* b* system by using a reflection spectrophotometer. Each CD dye was applied to 10 samples of each composite group for 10 s and applications were repeated for 2 times. Before the final color measurements, all samples was rinsed and dried. Color differences (ΔE) were measured and analyzed the data with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc tests. Results: Independent of dyes, perceptible color changes were observed in glass ionomer restorative material (FUJ) (ΔE ab * > 3.3). CAD, CAM and SES caused staining on highly triethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomer containing composite resin (VLX). Silorane based restorative material (SIL) and micro hybrid resin composite (Z25) were more resistant to discoloration then VLX and FUJ (P < 0.05). Conclusion: CD dyes may cause discolorations in some restorative materials and should be used with maximum care.
  8,859 840 -
Evaluation of disinfection of gutta-percha cones and their surface changes using different chemical solutions
Kanika Yadav, Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Anuja Ganoo, Marina Fernandes, Rajan Lambor
September-December 2016, 4(3):76-80
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.188226  
Context: Disinfection of obturating materials is mandatory for the successful root canal therapy. In literature, various disinfectants have been used to sterilize gutta-percha including sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Effectiveness of peracetic acid over NaOCl is documented in literature, but no study to date has shown the effect of peracetic acid disinfection on gutta-percha surface. Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 3% NaOCl, 1% peracetic acid, 0.5% octenisept in disinfecting gutta-percha cones and to analyze surface alterations of gutta-percha cones after chemical disinfection. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty gutta-percha cones were immersed in bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli for 5 min. Cones were then immersed in 3% NaOCl, 1% peracetic acid, 0.5% octenisept for 1 and 5 min. After disinfection, cones were incubated in Mueller Hinton Broth at 37°C for 7 days. Samples were observed at 24 h interval and those showing turbidity were subcultured. For morphologic evaluation, cones were immersed in disinfecting solutions for 1 and 5 min, dried on a paper pad for 10 min and analyzed under scanning electron microscope. Data was analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test. Results: One percent of peracetic acid was found to be most effective disinfectant. Surface alterations were found in all the groups. Conclusion: The outcome of this study confirmed the efficacy of 1% peracetic acid in the disinfection of gutta-percha cones. Topographic changes caused by peracetic acid should be evaluated further to determine its effect on gutta-percha properties and obturation seal.
  5,363 2,102 -
CASE REPORTS
A case report on fluorosed teeth whitening without microabrasion - Is it possible?
R Banu Ermis, Muhittin Ugurlu
September-December 2015, 3(3):83-87
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.168730  
Whitening of fluorosis stains ranging from yellow to dark brown presents a great challenge to the dentists. The aim of this study was to report the clinical case of a 32-year-old female patient with moderate fluorosis, who was treated using the combination of light-assisted in-office and at-home whitening system. The in-office whitening was performed using 25% hydrogen peroxide (Zoom DayWhite, Discus Dental, Stamford, USA) for four 15-min sessions with supplemental light (Philips Zoom, Stamford, USA) immediately followed by home whitening with a take-home custom tray using 22% carbamide peroxide (Zoom NiteWhite, Discus Dental, Stamford, USA) worn for 6 h a day for 1 week. Color measurements using a dental spectrophotometer (Spectroshade, MHT Optic Research AG, Niederhasli, Switzerland) after the first week showed that the suggested combination technique provided a fast whitening result with a high degree of patient satisfaction. The in-office whitening with light exhibited to be an efficient method for removing yellow and brown fluorosis stains, while the at-home whitening was useful for obtaining a uniform tooth shade. At the 6-month and 1-year recall, the teeth shade and appearance were evaluated. The results of this case report clearly show an effective esthetic result in the long term; however, the question of whether appropriate color stability would be provided by the technique still remains to be answered.
  6,261 491 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of direct composite restorations and inlays: Results at 12 months
Emine Sirin Karaarslan, Ertan Ertas, Bilinc Bulucu
May-August 2014, 2(2):70-77
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.136632  
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical performance of Class II direct and indirect composite restorations according to the United States Public Health Service criteria (USPHS). Materials and Methods: Seventy patients were included and four different composite resins, P60 (FP), SureFil Posterior (SP), Gradia Posterior (GP), and Bisco Aelite LS Packable (BAP) were used as direct restorative material. All of the composite resins except BAP were used as indirect restorative material. Instead of BAP, Tescera Laboratory composites were polymerized in Tescera inlay oven. All restorations were evaluated according to USPHS criteria during a one-year period. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between direct and indirect composite restorations according to the retention, marginal discoloration, surface staining, proximal contact continuity, and secondary caries. Indirect restorations have less surface roughness, postoperative sensitivity (P < 0.05), and soft tissue irritation (P < 0.1) than direct ones. Conclusion: The clinical performances of the indirect restorations were more satisfactory than the direct restorations.
  5,423 889 1
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Antimicrobial effect of different xylitol concentrations on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count
S Radmerikhi, B Formantes, KR Fajardo, E Azul
September-December 2013, 1(3):95-98
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.118907  
In recent years, pentacarbon sugars including xylitol are employed as supplements in the preparation of oral health products. The main purpose of this study was to measure Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count treated with different xylitol concentrations. Bacterial solutions were mixed separately in to 2 M (30.43%) xylitol stock solution. The mixture provided bacterial growth medium with 3-18% of xylitol. The solutions stored in a 37°C incubator for 48 h. Initial optical density and optical density of samples after 48 h taken using spectrophotometer. Result shown in average, bacterial growth in L. acidophilus was higher than S. mutans and even in higher xylitol concentration this difference preserved. The present study indicates that the addition of xylitol drastically can enhance the effect of antibacterial agent.
  5,613 668 1
CASE REPORT
Restorative management of grossly mutilated molar teeth using endocrown: A novel concept
Sarika Chaudhary, Ashok A Rathod, Pankaj Yadav, Sangeeta Talwar, Mahesh Verma
September-December 2016, 4(3):97-100
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.188235  
The endocrown is a restorative option for endodontically treated teeth. It consists of a circular butt-joint margin and a central retention cavity inside the pulp chamber and lacks intraradicular anchorage. Endocrowns are formed from a monoblock containing the coronal portion integrated into the apical projection that fills the pulp chamber space and possibly the root canal ingresses. This article describes the rationale and clinical guidelines for the placement of endocrowns. In the cases presented, extensively damaged teeth were superseded with endocrowns composed of pressed ceramics (Empress 2, Ivoclar), following endodontic and periodontal therapy. The substructure of this technique is to utilize the surface available in the pulpal chamber to assume the stability and retention of the restoration through adhesive procedures. By eliminating the utilization of a post and filling core, the number of adhesive bond interfaces is reduced, thus making the restoration less susceptible to the adverse effects of degradation of the hybrid layer. In these clinical cases, the 24 months survival of the endocrown restoration may be considered prosperous.
  5,125 1,036 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of the sealing ability of different glass ionomer cements as root-end filling materials
Fuat Ahmetoglu, K. Meltem Çolak Topçu, Hasan Oruçoglu
January-April 2014, 2(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.129014  
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of different glass ionomer cements (GIC) as root-end filling (RF) materials. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and eleven extracted human canines were cleaned and prepared using a rotary nickel titanium files with crown-down technique. All the teeth were filled with gutta-percha and then the apical third of each root was resected perpendicularly to the long axis direction. After, root-end cavity was prepared using a round bur. The specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups of 15 samples, filled with one of the test materials (Ionofil, Ketac Molar Quick Aplicap, Argion Molar AC, Photac Fil Quick Aplicap, Fuji II LC Capsule, Dyract Extra, Glasiosite Caps) and were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 7 days. 1-week later, apical parts of roots of 10 ± 0.05 mm were attached to the computerized fluid filtration device. The data obtained were analyzed using an ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's tests (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Statistical analysis indicated that RF with Argion molar AC (reinforced GIC) had the least micro-leakage of all and whereas Ketac Molar Quick Aplicap (conventional GIC) showed highest apical leakage than the other groups. Conclusion: This present study has shown that none of GICs, which used as a RF material unable to prevent apical leakage exactly and Argion Molar AC is used as a RF material among current GICs better than others.
  5,575 416 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
The root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular premolars: A literature review
Padmanabh Jha, Vineeta Nikhil, Vipin Arora, Mesha Jha
January-April 2013, 1(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.111226  
The objective was to review thoroughly the literature of the root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular premolars. Published studies were divided into anatomic studies reporting the number of roots, number of canals, and apical anatomy. Differences caused by gender and ethnicity have also been reported. Individual case reports of anomalies were included to demonstrate the extreme range of variation. Almost all of the teeth in the anatomic studies were single rooted (99.6%). The incidence of two roots (0.3%) and three roots (0.1%) was extremely rare. Anatomic studies of the internal canal morphology found that a single canal was present in 91.0% of the teeth. A single apical foramen was found in 91.8% of the teeth. However, the root and root canal morphology of the mandibular premolars can be extremely complex and requires careful assessment.
  5,291 692 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of fear of injections and its association with avoidance of dental treatment
Talha Mufeed Siddiqui, Aisha Wali, Habiba Abdullah, Fatima Naseem A Khan, Rabiya Tanvir, Mudassir Razi Siddiqui
September-December 2016, 4(3):81-85
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.188228  
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of needle phobia and to evaluate the different dimensions of fear of dental injections to help provide better care to the patients. Materials and Methods: A simple random technique was used and 250 adult patients above 18 years of age were selected who attended outpatients Department of Operative Dentistry, Baqai Dental College. A modified form of the structured questionnaire used by Milgrom et al. was generated. The items were scored based on the 5-point traditional Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Data were analyzed for descriptive analysis (mean, standard deviation) using the software SPSS version 19. Association of gender with fear of dental injections was evaluated using Chi-squared test (P = 0.05). Results: There was a statistically significant difference in fear of dental injections among male and female subjects. The most fearful aspect of dental injection was found to be fear of cross-infection. Fears associated with local anesthesia, for example, inadequate numbness, adverse reaction, and trouble in breathing or swallowing were the least common fears reported by the patients. Conclusion: This study highlighted that understanding the nature and extent of patients' fear of injection is important for dentists to expand their knowledge of the association of fear of dental needles for the impact on the treatment outcome and reluctance of the patients intervene.
  5,073 765 -
Effect of thermal cycling and microhardness on roughness of composite restorative materials
Efe Cetin Yilmaz, Recep Sadeler
September-December 2016, 4(3):93-96
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.188233  
Objective: This study is aimed to investigate the effect of thermal cycling and microhardness on surface roughness of four different composite restorative materials. Materials and Methods: In this study Nonofilled(Ivoclar Heliomolar, 3M ESPE Filtek Supreme) and microhybrid(3M ESPE Filtek Z250, Kuraray Clearfil AP-X) composites were used. The surface roughness (Ra) was initially measured in a profilometer using a cut off 0,25mm, after 6000 and 12000 thermal cycles. In addition to microhardness of composites Vicker hardness (HV) were determined. Data were subjected to Anova and Tukey's test.(α=0,05). Results: One-way Anova indicated significant differences in Vicker hardness(HV) between four composite resins. Significant lowest HV was found for Heliomolar (HV=22); mean values were considerably lower than three composite resins. In addition to overall 6000 thermal cycles increased the surface of roughness values for all materials and there was a trend in all groups to decrease the roughness after 12000 thermal cycles. Conclusion: The material composition including type of organic matrix could be more relevant to roughness maintenance over time than the general behavior of composites based on particle fillers. Moreover, this study revealed that correlations between microhardness (HV) and surface of roughness were poor.
  4,873 930 3
Bonding effectiveness of contemporary composite cements to dentin after 6-month water storage
Mouhamed Sarr, Babacar Faye, Fatou Leye-Benoist, Khaly Bane, Adjaratou Wakha Aidara, Babacar Touré
September-December 2016, 4(3):86-92
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.188231  
Purpose: To evaluate the bonding effectiveness to dentin of eight dual-cure composite cements after 6-month water storage. Materials and Methods: This study is a follow-up of a recent study that investigated the 1-week bonding effectiveness of feldspathic ceramic blocks luted to dentin using the same composite cements and experimental protocol. The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of different composite cements, including two etch-and-rinse cements (Calibra, Dentsply; Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent), two self-etch cements (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray; Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray), and four self-adhesive cements (Unicem, 3M ESPE; Maxcem, Kerr; Monocem, Shofu; G-Cem, GC), was measured using a standardized μTBS protocol after 6-month water storage. As control, a two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE, Kuraray) combined with a microhybrid restorative composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray) was used. Twenty-seven human third molars were used with specific preparation, and after 6-month water storage, microspecimens were prepared and subjected to a μTBS test. Results: The mean μTBS varied from 0 to 26.1 MPa, the latter being measured for the control adhesive composite combination. All specimens prepared using the self-adhesive composite cements Maxcem and Monocem failed during specimen processing. Most specimens failed at the dentin-cement interface, except the self-etch composite cement Panavia F2.0 that failed in 53% of the cases at the cement-ceramic interface and the control of which all specimens failed in the resin part of the microspecimens. Conclusion: The largely varying bonding effectiveness recorded for the different composite cements highlights the need for material specifications. Such specifications should also include a bond durability test as the specimens in the present study that were subjected to 6-month water storage. To lute ceramic restorations that allow light transmission to a sufficient degree, a conventional light-curable adhesive and composite should be considered.
  4,310 882 -
CASE REPORTS
Enamel microabrasion associated with dental bleaching to treat sequelae of amelogenesis imperfect
Josué Martos, Daiani W. W. da Silveira, Luiz F. M. Silveira, Oscar L. V. Ramos
January-April 2013, 1(1):36-39
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.111232  
The aim of this paper is to describe the treatment of a patient with amelogenesis imperfect in the maxillary teeth, employing the enamel microabrasion associated with tooth bleaching. It was used a microabrasive agent consisting of 6% hydrochloric acid and silicon carbide (Whiteness RM) and later, a hydrogen peroxide 35% bleaching product with the use of Twist pen system (Mix One Supreme). It can be concluded that, since being taken clinical care and also in diagnosis/planning, the association of microabrasion and bleaching techniques is an excellent option for esthetic and conservative treatment of teeth chromatically altered by enamel defects and its sequels.
  4,550 478 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Microtensile bond strength of three adhesive systems to different dentin tissues
Bilinç Bulucu, Cemal Yesilyurt, Davut Çelik, Gunes Bulut Eyuboglu, Cemile Kedici Alp, Hikmet Aydemir
September-December 2013, 1(3):81-85
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.118900  
Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strengths (mTBS) of three adhesive systems (Prime&Bond NT, Clearfil SE Bond, G Bond) to four different dentin structures; bovine dentin and unerupted, sound, caries affected human dentins. Materials and Methods: Flat bovine molar, unerupted, sound and caries affected human molar dentin structures were obtained at the occlusal surfaces of the extracted teeth. Final surface grindings were performed using 600-grit Silicon carbide paper. Three adhesive systems (Prime&Bond NT, Clearfil SE Bond, G Bond) were used to bond composite resin (P60, 3M ESPE) to the prepared dentin surfaces. After 24 h distilled-water storage, the bonded specimens were cross-sectioned (0.8 ± 0.2 mm 2 ) and subjected to a (μTBS) test. One-way analysis of variance multiple comparison test were used to statistically analyze the mean bond strength data α =0.05. Results: There was statistically significant difference in mTBS among the dentin types (P < 0.0005). Mean bond strength to sound human and bovine dentin was significantly higher than to caries-affected dentin and dentin of unerupted human teeth (P < 0.05). Statistically similar bond strength was obtained with Prime&Bond NT and Clearfil SE Bond while G-Bond showed the lowest bond strengths. Conclusion: The type of dentin structure has an important effect on the mTBS values of adhesive systems.
  4,268 425 -
Effect of coronal cement base and its thickness on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth
Cihan Yildirim, Ugur Aydin, Abdul Semih Ozsevik, Fatih Aksoy, Samet Tosun
January-April 2015, 3(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.150015  
Objective: To compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with mesiodistocclusal (MOD) cavities restored with only composite resin, 3 mm glass-ionomer cement (GIC) base + composite resin, and 5 mm GIC base + composite resin. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted intact mandibular molars were randomly divided into five groups each including 10 teeth. Group 1: No cavity preparation or endodontic treatment was applied (intact teeth). Group 2-5: Root canals were prepared with step-back technique and filled lateral condensation of gutta-percha and sealer. Group 2: No coronal restoration was achieved. Group 3: Teeth were coronally restored with only composite resin. Group 4: Coronal restorations were performed with composite resin following 3 mm GIC base placement. Group 5: Composite resin placed over 5 mm GIC base. After finishing and polishing, all specimens were kept in an incubator at 37°C in 100% humidity for 24 h and fracture resistance was tested with a Universal Testing Machine. Mean force load for each sample was recorded in Newtons (N). Results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's tests. Results: The mean force required to fracture each sample was as follows: Group 1: 2,745.3; Group 2: 325.9; Group 3: 1,958.1; Group 4: 1,756.3; and Group 5: 1,889.1. Fracture resistance of intact teeth (Group 1) was significantly higher than all other groups. Fracture resistance of teeth in Group 2 (not coronally restored) was significantly lower than all other groups. Fracture resistance values of other three experimental groups (Groups 3, 4, and 5) were not significantly different from each other. Conclusion: Placing a GIC base and its thickness did not significantly affect the fracture resistance compared with composite resin alone.
  3,070 1,614 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Silver amalgam: A clinician's perspective
Treville Pereira
May-August 2016, 4(2):25-30
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.181000  
Caries persists throughout the world, and patients have multiple restorations that are likely to need replacement throughout the remainder of their lives. The selection of the best restorative material that can be used in the oral cavity is a challenging job for both the dentist and the manufacturer. While material properties and clinical performance are critically important, local economies, health care systems, will be important determinants of whether and where new materials can be easily adopted. Challenges exist not only in specifying how the material should be manipulated and perform clinically but also in understanding and incorporating implications of the skill of the operator placing the restoration. Many restorative materials currently exist like amalgam, composites, glass ionomers, and resin ionomers. It is important that the dentist must make the selection of the material with great care because, in future years, those restorations needing replacement will result in the loss of increasing amounts of tooth structure. Amalgam has a lot of disadvantages such as lack of adhesion, toxicity, poor esthetics, and marginal leakage; however, the advantages score better over other materials.
  3,825 746 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Reliability of electronically detection of fissure caries (by using a prototype device): An alternative diagnostic electronic caries monitor device
Abdulkadir Sengun, Yüksel Özbay, Bayram Akdemir, Bora Öztürk, Füsun Özer, Serdar Baglar
January-April 2013, 1(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.111230  
Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the reliability of a prototype electronic caries monitor (ECM) for diagnosis of the dental caries on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and to compare using histological examination as gold standard. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 93 occlusal sites of 33 extracted human molars. Electrical resistance to alternative currency of 21 Hz and 24 Vpp of the teeth was measured with the ECM, which produced in Selcuk University. After obtaining electrical conductance values, each tooth was then sectioned into two pieces mesiodistally and examined histologically for occlusal caries under the stereomicroscope. Statistical evaluations were made using Pearson correlation test. Results: A statistically significant negative correlation was found between electrical resistance of the teeth and occlusal caries presence ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: As a result, it is suggested that ECM is a nondestructive and suitable method at detection of occlusal caries.
  3,971 489 -
Effect of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages on the wear and fracture toughness of teeth and resin composite materials: In vitro study
Fatema Yusuf, A Srirekha, Jayshree Hegde, Rupali Karale, Kusum Bashetty, Savitha Adiga
January-April 2013, 1(1):11-17
DOI:10.4103/2321-4619.111227  
Background: Tooth wear is becoming more apparent in the early stages of life. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages have highest buffering capacity and low pH values show pronounced erosive effect on enamel and degradation rate of composite materials. Hence the purpose of this study is to compare wear and degradation of two resin composite materials and teeth in presence of different alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Materials and Methods: Total 75 specimens comprising of composite blocks (Z350 and P90) and mandibular molars were divided into experimental groups (A, B, and C) ( n = 25). The experimental liquids were water, Sprite® , Coke® , Kingfisher® Beer, and Golconda® Wine ( n = 5). The specimens were weighed using a digital weighing balance. Wear was carried in Wet Abrasive Wear Tester. SEM evaluation was done. Fracture toughness performed with universal testing machine. Results: In Groups A and B significant weight loss in all experimental beverages, maximum in alcoholic beverages ( P < 0.05). SEM showed surface irregularities, filler/matrix interfacial failure, and significant decrease in fracture toughness in Groups A and B. In Group C significant weight loss and decrease in fracture toughness maximum in non-alcoholic beverages ( P < 0.05). SEM showed significant wear and surface irregularities. Conclusions: It was concluded that significant amount of wear of dental composite materials and teeth seen in presence of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. All the experimental groups displayed statistical significant decrease in fracture toughness in presence of all beverages.
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