Journal of Restorative Dentistry

SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year
: 2013  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 95--98

Antimicrobial effect of different xylitol concentrations on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count


S Radmerikhi, B Formantes, KR Fajardo, E Azul 
 Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of the East, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines

Correspondence Address:
S Radmerikhi
Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of the East, Sampaloc, Manila
Philippines

Abstract

In recent years, pentacarbon sugars including xylitol are employed as supplements in the preparation of oral health products. The main purpose of this study was to measure Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count treated with different xylitol concentrations. Bacterial solutions were mixed separately in to 2 M (30.43%) xylitol stock solution. The mixture provided bacterial growth medium with 3-18% of xylitol. The solutions stored in a 37°C incubator for 48 h. Initial optical density and optical density of samples after 48 h taken using spectrophotometer. Result shown in average, bacterial growth in L. acidophilus was higher than S. mutans and even in higher xylitol concentration this difference preserved. The present study indicates that the addition of xylitol drastically can enhance the effect of antibacterial agent.



How to cite this article:
Radmerikhi S, Formantes B, Fajardo K R, Azul E. Antimicrobial effect of different xylitol concentrations on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count.J Res Dent 2013;1:95-98


How to cite this URL:
Radmerikhi S, Formantes B, Fajardo K R, Azul E. Antimicrobial effect of different xylitol concentrations on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count. J Res Dent [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 May 20 ];1:95-98
Available from: http://www.jresdent.org/text.asp?2013/1/3/95/118907


Full Text

 Introduction



Two groups of bacteria are responsible for initiating caries: Streptococcus mutans[1] and Lactobacillus acidophilus.[2] If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss and infection. Tooth decay is caused by specific types of bacteria that produce acid in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. [3],[4] In fact the mineral content of teeth is sensitive to increases in acidity from the production of lactic acid. In recent years, pentacarbon sugars, pentiols, including xylitol, are employed as supplements in the preparation of oral hygiene products. Xylitol may not only improve taste value of the toothpaste but may also the environment of the oral cavity. [5] Xylitol is a 5-carbon polyol sugar alcohol commonly used as a non-cariogenic sweetener in chewing gums, tablets, dentifrice, and oral rinses. [6] Previous studies have demonstrated the cariostatic properties of xylitol, which may be linked to the inhibited development of dental plaque and to the antibacterial activity toward S. mutans and L. acidophilus, microbes responsible for development of the decay process. [5] Scheinin et al. [7] have noted a significantly reduced occurance of teeth decay by use of a xylitol containing toothpaste, but Twetman and Peterson failed to confirm the effect. The use of high concentrations of xylitol have been shown to inhibit Lactococcus lactis over time, but not on Streptococcus salivarius and L. casei.[8] Further, xylitol has been shown to prevent the adherence of Pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae to nasopharyngeal cells due to a fructose phosphotransferase system-mediated uptake and phosphorylation of xylitol in the cell. [4],[9],[10] Studies have demonstrated growth inhibition for Streptococcus mitis with xylitol but not in Streptococcus milleri was not inhibited by it. [11],[12] In vitro studies support this idea; Actinomyces strains, Vitellariopsis dispar and Fusobacterium nucleatum were not inhibited by xylitol. [13] S. mutans has been implicated as a principal etiological agent of dental caries in humans because this oral bacterium has the ability to adhere to and produce acid at the tooth surface when carbohydrates, sucrose, serve as a substrate. [14] The aim of this study was to determine and compare, S. mutans and L. acidophilus population change when treated with 3%, 8%, 12% and 18% xylitol concentrations.

 Materials and Methods



Bacterial strains

Freeze dried S. mutans and L. acidophilus were obtained from Philippine National Collection of Microorganisms (PNCM), University of the Philippines, Los Baρos, College, Laguna, Philippines, together with transfer and growth media. The cells were re-suspend with 0.2 ml of the liquid transfer medium provided for each strains.

Preparation of xylitol stock solution

30.43% or 2M xylitol stock solution was prepared by dissolving 30.43 g xylitol in 100 ml distilled water. 30.43% aqueous xylitol solution was made by dissolving 30 g of xylitol in 100 ml distilled water. The stock solution was autoclaved at 121°C for 15 min.

Bacterial transfer

2.72 ml, 2.22 ml, 1.83 ml and 1.23 ml of S. mutans and L. acidophilus acidophilus cultures were added in 0.29 ml, 0.78 ml, 1.17 ml and 1.77 ml of 2M (30.43%) xylitol stock solution. The mixture provided 3 ml of bacterial growth medium with 3%, 8%, 12% and 18% of xylitol. Likewise, 3 ml of bacteria in broth was prepared to serve as control. All the solutions were stored in a 37°C incubator.

Antimicrobial assay using spectrophotometer

Initial optical density and optical density of samples after 48 h were taken using spectrophotometer. Optical density of samples read at 600 nm to measure optical density of S. mutans[15] and L. acidophilus[16] by using spectrophotometer (Stat Fax® 4500). All the experiments were performed in three trials.

Statistical analysis

Spectrophotometry result were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey's multiples comparison test using IBM SPSS Statistics v. 20 software. Diagrams were prepared using Microsoft Excel 2013.

 Results



Analysis of results using ANOVA showed a significant difference in the optical density between S. mutans and L. acidophilus in different xylitol concentrations [Table 1]. Result shown by an increase in xylitol concentration mean for both microorganisms, lower optical density was observed with higher xylitol concentrations. Marked inhibition of bacterial growth occurred in 18% xylitol concentration [Table 2], [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Table 1}{Table 2}

Result shown in average, bacterial growth in L. acidophilus (2.038) was higher than S. mutans (1.059 OD) and even in higher xylitol concentration this difference preserved [Table 3] and [Table 4], [Figure 3].{Figure 3}{Table 3}{Table 4}

Result shown highest optical density in medium with S. mutans belong to control group (1.484 OD), lowest optical density in medium with S. mutans belong to medium with 18% xylitol (0.688) and optical density decrease 0.797 OD by an increase in xylitol concentration up to 18%. Also, the result shows that the highest optical density in medium with L. acidophilus belongs to control group (2.496 OD), lowest optical density in medium with L. acidophlus belongs to medium with 18% xylitol (1.434) and optical density decrease 1.062 OD by an increase in xylitol concentration up to 18%. Result shown in both bacteria by an increase in xylitol concentration the bacterial count decreased by half [Table 4].

Result of Tukey's multiple test shown 99% confidence of significant difference between 8%, 12% and 18% with other groups and also result shown 95% confidence of significant difference between 3% xylitol and control group.

 Discussion



The present study indicates that the addition of xylitol drastically can enhance the effect of antibacterial agent. Also, the study demonstrated that xylitol consumption affect the composition of oral flora by a decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Xylitol inhibits the growth of bacteria via the inducible fructose phosphptrasnferase system and formation xylitol-5-phosphate. Also, subsequent accumulation of xylitol-5-phosphate interferese with carbohydrate methabolism. [17],[18] Also it can disturbs the protein synthesis and causes ultrastructural changes bacteria. [10],[19] Subsequent accumulation of xylitol Result of this study confirms that S. mutans and L. acidophilus, also possess the fructose pathway and could thus be inhibited by xylitol as pervious report [20] on L. paracasei, L. brevis and L. fermentum. The effect of xylitol on bacterial level depend to both of, its high frequency and the concentration of the agent. [21],[22] Although previous studies shown other organism are also sensitive to xylitol, but the decrease in bacterial level should be more intense on S. mutans and L. acidophilus due to decrease in the period of acid pH in the dental plaque. [23],[24],[25]

 Conclusion



Our result suggest that the consumption of 5% xylitol reduced S. mutans and L. acidophilus growth and by an increase in xylitol inhibitory effect increased. This study confirms that even in low concentrations, Xylitol has an inhibitory effect against main oral cavity inducer bacteria. Xylitol has more inhibitory effect on L. acidophilus in comparison with S. mutans. Further studies on long time effect of the xylitol solution from 8 to 12 week and effect of very low concentration of xylitol against S. mutans and L. acidophilus is recommending.

 Acknowledgment



This research is a portion of the thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Dental Medicine in the University of the East - College of Dentistry. The authors would like to thank Dr. H. Ahmadian Moghadam for her patience, encouragement and insightful comments.

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